A conveyor restrainer can operate at a line speed in excess of 240 cattle per hour. Typically, a 7 ft. 6 in. rise from the ground floor of the angled pens to the conveyor is necessary. The rise is in 26 steps in the single file chutes. Concrete walls 8 in. thick and 66 in. high are used for fence in the curved system. Cattle pass through the crowd pen, into the primary chute, up the steps and from there to the restrainer the chute is level. The primary chute is used unless an animal goes down and stops the line. In that case the secondary chute takes over until the primary chute is clear. Two sets of black stop gates are installed to prevent animals from backing out, but if they are moving forward the gates should be latched in the “UP” position for cattle to walk under freely. The concrete walls in the single file chutes are sealed to the floor so manure can be collected and does not seep out. Washing begins at the restrainer and moves down the single file chutes, down the steps and into the crowd pen. The concrete wall in the crowd pen and the 12′ wide alley wall have slots formed along the floor for wash water to enter a drainage trench under the handler walkway. Deep grooved concrete was used in all curved fence areas and in the angled holding pens. The three most important principles when designing facilities for cattle are; Solid sided fences in high use areas like the curved lane and crowd pen. Blocking vision with solid fences keeps them calm. Deep groove concrete floors also keeps cattle calm, and gives them confidence waking through the facility. Curved fences promote forward motion and make cattle think they’re going back where they came from. Curves also prevent abrupt corners or chutes that appear dead-ended.